Frequently Asked Questions


A nutritional supplement composed of an aqueous extract derived from the leaves of the tropical fern belonging to the Polypodiaceae family, Polypodium leucotomos (PL; Phlebodium aureum), with potential photoprotective, skin protective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and antioxidant activities. This extract contains many phenolic compounds, such as ferulic, caffeic, coumaric and vanillic acid, which are mainly responsible for this extract's effects. Upon administration, Polypodium leucotomos extract (PLE) exerts antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals and inhibiting the generation and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby preventing ultraviolet (UV)-induced as well as ROS-induced DNA damage. In addition, the chemicals in this extract protect antioxidant enzymes and modulate expression of cancer and inflammation-related genes, including the induction of the expression of tumor suppressor genes and the inhibition of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory enzymes, thereby inhibiting the activation of signal transduction pathways involved in carcinogenesis and inflammation, respectively. PLE also stimulates tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

Studies have shown that nicotinamide(vitamin B3) helps prevent new actinic keratoses lesions from forming in people who had four or fewer actinic lesions before taking nicotinamide. More studies are needed to find out if nicotinamide prevents nonmelanoma skin cancer from forming or coming back.

Nicotinamide is a water-soluble form of vitamin B3 that has been shown to enhance the repair of UV-induced DNA damage. Nicotinamide is found naturally in meat, fish, nuts, grains, and legumes.

Nicotinamide is a critical component of the glycolysis pathway by generating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide for adenosine triphosphate production.

People use niacinamide to prevent vitamin B3 deficiency and related conditions such as pellagra. It is also used for acne, diabetes, cancer, osteoarthritis, aging skin, skin discoloration, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses.


The skin is the body’s largest organ. It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water, fat, and vitamin D. The skin has several layers, but the two main layers are the epidermis (upper or outer layer) and the dermis (lower or inner layer).

The most common types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, which forms in the squamous cells and basal cell carcinoma, which forms in the basal cells. Squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are also called nonmelanoma skin cancers. Melanoma, which forms in the melanocytes, is a less common type of skin cancer that grows and spreads quickly.

Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common types of skin cancer in the United States. The number of new cases of nonmelanoma skin cancer appears to be increasing every year. These nonmelanoma skin cancers can usually be cured.